There are two main types of carpet fibers, synthetic and natural. Natural fibers tend to be more expensive and each type has its ups and downs. Although there is an exhaustive list of difference in quality and looks, we will only address those that pertain to cleaning.
Synthetic carpet fibers consist primarily of nylon, rayon and olefin. Synthetics can typically take a higher heat than their natural counterpoints. They can also take a higher PH in their cleaning solution. Overall, these fibers are easier to clean than naturals.
Natural fibers are the more resilient of the two. However, they cannot take the heat or extreme PH levels of synthetic fibers. Natural fibers can be wool, cotton or silk. Cotton can often Brown Out so drying times are always a consideration.